Achtung:

Sie haben Javascript deaktiviert!
Sie haben versucht eine Funktion zu nutzen, die nur mit Javascript möglich ist. Um sämtliche Funktionalitäten unserer Internetseite zu nutzen, aktivieren Sie bitte Javascript in Ihrem Browser.

Logo Art-D Grids Bildinformationen anzeigen
Microgrids in Südafrika (Foto: Wits-University Shivan Parusnath) Bildinformationen anzeigen

Logo Art-D Grids

Microgrids in Südafrika (Foto: Wits-University Shivan Parusnath)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Stefan Krauter

Kontakt
Vita
Publikationen
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Stefan Krauter

Elektrische Energietechnik (EET)

Leiter - Professor - Nachhaltige Energiekonzepte für die Energiewende.

Telefon:
+49 5251 60-2301
Fax:
+49 5251 60-3235
Büro:
N1.110
Sprechzeiten:

Dienstag 10-11 Uhr über ZOOM:

uni-paderborn-de.zoom.us/j/7835851211

Web:
Besucher:
Pohlweg 55
33098 Paderborn

Kompetenzzentrum für Nachhaltige Energietechnik (KET)

Vorstand - Professor - stellvertretender Vorstandsvorsitzender

Telefon:
+49 5251 60-4139
Fax:
+49 5251 60-3522
Sprechzeiten:

Mo-Fr 9-17

Web:

Profilbereich Nachhaltige Werkstoffe, Prozesse und Produkte

Mitglied - Professor

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Stefan Krauter
09/1973 - heute

Dipl-Ing, Dr.-Ing, habil., Prof.

Ausbildung

1973 – 1982 Mörike–Gymnasium in Göppingen, Abschluss: Abitur.

1982 – 1988 Studium der Elektro- und Informationstechnik an der Technischen Universität München, Abschluss: Diplom-Ingenieur.

1989 – 1993 Promotion am Fachbereich Elektrotechnik der Technischen Universität Berlin bei Prof. Rolf Hanitsch, Institut für Elektrische Maschinen: Betriebsmodell der optischen, thermischen und elektrischen Parameter von PV-Modulen.

01/94 – 04/94 Post-doc Forschungsaufenthalt bei Prof. Martin Green und Prof. Stuart Wenham an der University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, Australien.

08/94 – 05/97 Post-doc Forschungsaufenthalte bei Prof. Richard Stephan an der Bundesuniversität Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ/COPPE/EE), Brasilien. Gastvorlesung: Renewable Energies.

05/94 – 07/98 Habilitation an der Technischen Universität Berlin. Abschluss: Lehrbefähigung.

08/99 Verleihung der Lehrbefugnis für das Fach Photovoltaische Energiesysteme durch den Fachbereich Elektrotechnik der Technischen Universität Berlin.

02/05 Ernennung zum Außerplanmäßigen Professor für das Fach Photovoltaische Energietechnik an der Technischen Universität Berlin.

07/08 Ernennung zum ordentlichen Professor an der Hochschule Biberach.

08/10 Ernennung zum Universitätsprofessor und Lehrstuhlinhaber für Elektrische Energietechnik − Nachhaltige Energiekonzepte der Universität Paderborn.

Berufspraxis

08/84 – 10/84 Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching bei München: Werkstudent am Joint European Torus JET (Entwicklung und Aufbau einer Test- und Kalibrations-Apparatur, Abstimmung der Tomographiestrahlungssensoren des Torus).

12/85 – 05/86 Technische Universität München, Institut für Elektroakustik: Werkstudent: Konzeption, Aufbau eines Visualisierungsinterfaces zur Frequenzgruppen-bestimmung (ausgestellt auf der Hannover Messe 1986).

10/89 – 10/91 Technische Universität Berlin: Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter, Leiter und Organisator des Studienreformprojekts Projektorientiertes Elektroniklabor.

10/91 – 09/94 Technische Universität Berlin: Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institut für Elektrische Maschinen. Betreuung des Maschinenlabors. Aufbau, Leitung und Organisation des Labors Praktikum zum Hauptfach Photovoltaische Energiesysteme.

09/94 – 10/94 Gastprofessur an der Bundesuniversität von Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brasilien. Gelesen wurde Photovoltaic Energy Systems.

01/95 – 10/95 Projektleitung: Berechnung und optische Auslegung des Referenz-Sonnensimulators für die PV-Modulzertifizierung am TÜV Rheinland, Köln.

11/95 – 10/96 Mitveranstalter des Energy Saving – Workshops der GTZ mit TU Berlin – CEPEL -UFRJ/COPPE in Rio de Janeiro. Gastvorlesungen an der UFRJ und an der UENF.

04/96 – 03/98 Lehraufträge an der TU Berlin für die Vorlesungen Solartechnische Systeme sowie Nutzung von Patentdatenbanken.

10/96 – 01/98 Mitgründer und Aufbau der Aktiengesellschaft SOLON AG für Solartechnik, Berlin.

03/98 – 03/03 Gastprofessor (DAAD–CAPES) an der Bundesuniversität UFRJ-COPPE in Rio de Janeiro, Brasilien; Aufbau des Labors für Regenerative Energien.

01/02 – 09/15 Veranstalter der RIO 02/3/5/6/9/12/15 Konferenzen (World Climate & Energy Events) sowie der Industriemessen LAREF 3/5/6/9/12 (Latin America Renewable Energy Fairs) mit Beteiligung von UNEP, UNESCO, WCRE, BMWA, DENA, GIZ (GTZ).

10/03 – 10/05 Gastprofessor am Fachbereich Physik der Landesuniversität Ceará (UECE).

02/05 - 02/20 Außerplanmäßiger Professor an der Technischen Universität Berlin (TUB).

10/06 - 04/18 Vorstand & Senior Consultant am Photovoltaik Institut Berlin AG (PI-Berlin).

09/08 – 08/10 Professor für Energiesysteme an der Hochschule Biberach-Riß (HBC).

seit 09/10 Professor am Fachbereich Elektrotechnik der Universität Paderborn, Lehrstuhl-inhaber für Elektrische Energietechnik − Nachhaltige Energiekonzepte.

Fremdsprachenkenntnisse:

Englisch: Sprache und Schrift: sehr gut

Portugiesisch: Sprache und Schrift: sehr gut

Französisch: Sprache und Schrift: gut

Spanisch: Sprache und Schrift: gut

• Gründungsmitglied: International Solar Center GmbH, Berlin.

• Mitgründer: SOLON AG, Aktiengesellschaft für Solartechnik, Berlin.

• Berliner Solarpreis 1995: Informationssystem für das International Solar Center.

• Green Prize of the Americas 2006 für Aktivitäten im Bereich Erneuerbarer Energien.

• Auszeichnung bestes Poster auf der 4. Weltkonferenz für photovoltaische Energiewandlung 2006.

• Auszeichnung bestes Poster auf der 42. IEEE PV-Specialists Conference 2015.

• Projektpräsentation (I-SHS) für die Ausstellung 50 Jahre Technische Universität Berlin.

• Gründer/Geschäftsführer Rio Solar Ltda: Projektgesellschaft für Regenerative Energiesysteme.

• Beratendes Mitglied der brasilianischen Behörde für technische Normen ABNT.

• Initiator und Leiter der internationalen Kongresse RIO 02/3/5/6/9/12/15 – World Climate & Energy Events. sowie der Latin America Renewable Energy Fairs LAREF 2003–2015 (www.rio15.net).

• Lateinamerikaverantwortlicher des World Council for Renewable Energy (WCRE).

• Initiator und Organisator der Konferenzen Decentralized Power Systems (DPS 11/12).

210 Veröffentlichungen, inkl. 3 Bücher, 2 Patente.


Liste im Research Information System öffnen

2022

Microinverter testing update using high power modules: Efficiency, yield, and conformity to a new ”estimation formula” for variation of PV panel size

S. Krauter, J. Bendfeld, M.C. Möller, in: Proceedings of the 49th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2022

The market for microinverters is growing, especially in Europe. Driven by the strongly rising prices for electricity, many small photovoltaic energy systems are being installed. Since monitoring for these plants is often quite costly, their yields are often not logged. Since 2014, microinverters have been studied at the University of Paderborn. The investigations are divided into indoor and outdoor tests. In the indoor area conversion efficiencies as a function of load have been measured with high accuracy and ranked according to Euro- and CEC weightings. In the outdoor laboratory, the behavior in the real world is tested. Energy yields have been measured outdoors via identical and calibrated crystalline silicon PV modules. Here, the investigations were carried out with modules of the power of 215 Wp until the year 2020. Because of the increasing module power nowadays, modules with an output of 360 Wp are now being used. To assess the influence of PV module size, two extremes have been investigated: A rather small module with 215 Wp - as it has been used 10 years ago, and a brand-new module (2021) offering 360 Wp. Both types of modules contain 60 solar cells in series connection. Appling the low-power modules, the challenge for the different micro-inverters has been during weak-light conditions, using the high-power modules, some inverters temporarily reach their power limits and yield is reduced. A method using a reference configuration of inverter & module and a linear equation resulting in the actual yield, any module & inverter configuration can be characterized by just the two coefficients.


Model of a Self-Sufficient PV Home using a Hybrid Storage System based on Li-Ion Batteries and Hydrogen Storage with Waste Heat Utilization

M.C. Möller, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 49th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2022

This paper provides a hybrid energy system model created in Matlab/Simulink which is based on photovoltaics as its main energy source. The model includes a hybrid energy storage which consists of a short-term lithium-ion battery and hydrogen as long-term storage to ensure autonomy even during periods of low PV production (e.g., in winter). The sectors heat and electricity are coupled by using the waste-heat generated by production and reconversion of hydrogen through an electrolyser respectively a fuel cell. A heat pump has been considered to cover the residual heat demand (for well insulated homes). Within this paper a model of the space heating system as well as the hot water heating system is presented. The model is designed for the simulation and analysis of a whole year energy flow by using a time series of loads, weather and heat profiles as input. Moreover, results of the energy balance within the energy system by simulation of a complete year by varying the orientation (elevation and azimuth) of the PV system and the component sizing, such as the lithium-ion battery capacity, are presented. It turned out that a high amount of heating energy can be saved by using the waste heat generated by the electrolyser and the fuel cell. The model is well suited for the analysis of the effects of different component dimensionings in a hydrogen-based energy system via the overall energy balance within the residential sector.


Hybrid Energy System Model in Matlab/Simulink based on Solar Energy, Lithium-Ion Battery and Hydrogen

M.C. Möller, S. Krauter, Energies / Special Issue "Sustainable Energy Concepts for Energy Transition" (2022), 15 (6), 2201

In this paper, a model of a hybrid, hydrogen-based energy system for a household which includes the heating sector is presended. With such an energy system it's possible to enable energy autarky over a whole year based on solar energy. The scope of this study was to present a verified hybrid energy system model created in Simulink which can be used to prospectively size future similar energy systems where hydrogen in combination with a li-ion battery shall be used as energy storage type.


Neural Network-Based Demand-Side Management in a Stand-Alone Solar PV-Battery Microgrid Using Load-Shifting and Peak-Clipping

G.H. Philipo, J.N. Kakande, S. Krauter, Energies (2022), 15(14), 5215

<jats:p>Due to failures or even the absence of an electricity grid, microgrid systems are becoming popular solutions for electrifying African rural communities. However, they are heavily stressed and complex to control due to their intermittency and demand growth. Demand side management (DSM) serves as an option to increase the level of flexibility on the demand side by scheduling users’ consumption patterns profiles in response to supply. This paper proposes a demand-side management strategy based on load shifting and peak clipping. The proposed approach was modelled in a MATLAB/Simulink R2021a environment and was optimized using the artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. Simulations were carried out to test the model’s efficacy in a stand-alone PV-battery microgrid in East Africa. The proposed algorithm reduces the peak demand, smoothing the load profile to the desired level, and improves the system’s peak to average ratio (PAR). The presence of deferrable loads has been considered to bring more flexible demand-side management. Results promise decreases in peak demand and peak to average ratio of about 31.2% and 7.5% through peak clipping. In addition, load shifting promises more flexibility to customers.</jats:p>


2021

Einfluss von Steilaufstellung, Nachführung und Einsatz bifazialer PV-Module auf den Speicherbedarf und die Kosten einer 100% EE-Versorgung Deutschlands

S. Krauter, A. Khatibi, in: Tagungsband des 36. PV-Symposium, 18.-26 Mai 2021, online, ISBN 978-3-948176-14-3, S. 301-304. , Conexio, 2021, pp. 301-304


Comparison and Validation of Irradiance Data: Satellite Meteorological Dataset MERRA-2 vs. Meteonorm and German Weather Service (DWD)

A. Khatibi, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 38th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC 2021), 2021, pp. 1141 - 1147

Access to precise meteorological data is crucial to be able to plan and install renewable energy systems such as solar power plants and wind farms. In case of solar energy, knowledge of local irradiance and air temperature values is very important. For this, various methods can be used such as installing local weather stations or using meteorological data from different organizations such as Meteonorm or official Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). An alternative is to use satellite reanalysis datasets provided by organizations like the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). In this paper the “Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications” dataset version 2 (MERRA-2) will be presented, and its performance will be evaluated by comparing it to locally measured datasets provided by Meteonorm and DWD. The analysis shows very high correlation between MERRA-2 and local measurements (correlation coefficients of 0.99) for monthly global irradiance and air temperature values. The results prove the suitability of MERRA-2 data for applications requiring long historical data. Moreover, availability of MERRA-2 for the whole world with an acceptable resolution makes it a very valuable dataset.


Module-Inverters (Microinverters): Influence of Module Size on Conversion Efficiencies and Energy Yields

S. Krauter, J. Bendfeld, in: Proceedings of the 38th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PVSEC 2021), 2021, pp. 659 - 663

Efficiencies and energy yields of microinverters available on the market during 2014‒2021 have been measured, compared, and ranked. Conversion efficiencies as a function of load have been measured indoors with high accuracy and ranked according to Euro- and CEC weightings. Energy yields have been measured outdoors via identical and calibrated crystalline silicon PV modules of 215 Wp (until 2020) and 360 Wp (starting 2021). Inverters with two inputs have been fed by two of those modules. DC input, AC power output and energy yield of each microinverter have been recorded by individual calibrated electricity meters. CEC and EU efficiency rankings have been computed and compared. To assess the influence of PV module size, two extremes have been investigated: A rather small module with 215 Wp - as it has been used 10 years ago, and a brand-new module (2021) offering 360 Wp. Both types of modules contain 60 solar cells in series connection. Appling the low-power modules, the challenge for the different micro-inverters has been during weak-light conditions, using the high-power modules, some inverters temporarily reach their power limits and yield is reduced. A method using a reference configuration of inverter & module and a linear equation y = ax + b resulting in the actual yield, any module & inverter configuration can be characterized by just the coefficients a and b.


Load Data Acquisition in Rural East Africa for the Layout of Microgrids and Demand–Side–Management Measures

J.N. Kakande, G.H. Philipo, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 38th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EUPVSEC 2021), 2021, pp. 1505-1510

With its growing population and industrialization, DREs, and solar technologies in particular, provide a sustainable means of bridging the current energy deficit in Africa, increasing supply reliability and meeting future demand. Data acquisition and data management systems allow real time monitoring and control of energy systems as well as performance analysis. However commercial data acquisition systems often have cost implications that are prohibitive for small PV systems and installations in developing countries. In this paper, a multi-user, multi-purpose microgrid database system is designed and implemented. MAVOWATT 270 power quality analyzers by GOSSEN METRAWATT, raspberry pi modules and sensors are used for measuring, recording and storing electrical and meteorological data in East Africa. Socio-economic data is also stored in the database. The designed system employs open source software and hardware solutions which are best suited to developing regions like East Africa due to the lower cost implications. The expected results promise a comprehensive database covering different electro-technical and socio-economic parameters useful for optimal design of microgrid systems.


Validation and Performance of Satellite Meteorological Dataset MERRA-2 for Solar and Wind Applications

A. Khatibi, S. Krauter, Energies (2021), 14(4), 882

<jats:p>Fast-growing energy demand of the world makes the researchers focus on finding new energy sources or optimizing already-developed approaches. For an efficient use of solar and wind energy in an energy system, correct design and sizing of a power system is of high importance and improving or optimizing the process of data obtaining for this purpose leads to higher performance and lower cost per unit of energy. It is essential to have the most precise possible estimation of solar and wind energy potential and other local weather parameters in order to fully feed the demand and avoid extra costs. There are various methods for obtaining local data, such as local measurements, official organizational data, satellite obtained, and reanalysis data. In this paper, the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications dataset version 2 (MERRA-2) dataset provided by NASA is introduced and its performance is evaluated by comparison to various locally measured datasets offered by meteorological institutions such as Meteonorm and Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, or Germany’s National Meteorological Service) around the world. After comparison, correlation coefficients from 0.95 to 0.99 are observed for monthly global horizontal irradiance values. In the case of air temperature, correlation coefficients of 0.99 and for wind speed from 0.81 to 0.99 are observed. High correlation with ground measurements and relatively low errors are confirmed, especially for irradiance and temperature values, that makes MERRA-2 a valuable dataset, considering its world coverage and availability.</jats:p>


Projekt Art-D Grids: Nachhaltige und stabile Microgrids in Afrika - eine Plattform für Forschung und Lehre für die Entwicklung

S. Krauter, J. Böcker, C. Freitag, B. Hehenkamp, U. Hilleringmann, K. Temmen, T. Klaus, N. Rohrer, S. Lehmann, in: Tagungsband 36. PV-Symposium / BIPV-Forum 18-26. Mai 2021, 2021


Projekt Art-D Grids: Nachhaltige und stabile Microgrids in Afrika - eine Plattform für Forschung und Lehre für die Entwicklung

S. Krauter, J. Böcker, C. Freitag, B. Hehenkamp, U. Hilleringmann, K. Temmen, T. Klaus, N. Rohrer, S. Lehmann, in: Tagungsband des 36. PV-Symposiums, 18.-26 Mai 2021, Conexio, 2021, pp. 305-309


2020

Micro-Inverters: An Update of Comparison of Conversion Efficiencies and Energy Yields

S. Krauter, J. Bendfeld, in: Proceedings of the EUPVSEC 2020, 2020, pp. 935 - 938

Efficiencies and energy yields of microinverters available on the market during 2014‒2020 have been measured, compared, and ranked. Conversion efficiencies as a function of load have been measured indoors with high accuracy and ranked according to Euro- and CEC weightings. Energy yields have been measured outdoors via identical and calibrated crystalline silicon PV modules of 215 Wp each. Inverters with two inputs have been fed by two of those modules. DC input, AC power output and energy yield of each micro-inverter have been recorded by individual calibrated electricity meters. Apparently, some inverters have been optimized for high irradiance levels and ranked better at the CEC efficiency ranking, others performed very well also at low irradiance levels, thus ranking higher at in the EU efficiency ranking. Efficiency ranks are slightly deviating from rankings by energy yield measurements. At one inverter, a slow MPPT algorithm that barely could follow quickly changing irradiance levels is most probably responsible for this effect. Another inverter switched off for a while after operation at high power, another one failed permanently. Apparently, some inverters are been optimized to show excellent datasheet ratings for EU- or CEC- efficiency. On the other hand, two inverters (each featuring two inputs) did not show an outstanding performance at the EU- and CEC-ratings but achieved leading ranks for AC energy yields. For the customer, AC yield is a major performance indicator of a microinverter and should be included in the datasheet.


Einfluss der Betriebstemperatur auf den Wirkungsgrad von Modul-Wechselrichtern für PV-Netzeinspeisungen

S. Krauter, J. Bendfeld, in: Tagungsband des 35. Symposiums für Photovoltaische Solarenergie, Kloster Banz, Bad Staffelstein (Deutschland), 2020


Triggering Demand‒Side‒Management: Correlation of electricity prices, share of renewables, CO2‒contents, and grid‒frequency in the German electricity grid.

S. Krauter, L. Zhang, in: Proceedings of the 37th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 07 - 11 September 2020., 2020, pp. 1815 - 1817

To provide a simple instrument to operate residential Load-Shifting or Demand-Side-Management systems, the measurement of the actual grid frequency seems to be an appropriate method. Due to the present inflexibility and the lack of sufficient throttling capabilities of lignite and nuclear power plants, a surplus of electricity generation occurs during periods of high wind and solar power generation. While the specific CO2- emission is decreasing then ‒ due to the increased share of Renewables, the grid frequency is increasing (to a certain limit). Using the grid frequency as an indicator to switch-on and off certain loads (loads that do not require power permanently (e.g. dishwashers, washing machines, dryers, fridges and freezers, heaters) could provide a simple, inexpensive demand-side management indicator to lower specific CO2‒emssions and costs (if a dynamic consumption tariff is available). To check the truthfulness of that hypothesis, the grid and frequency data of the German grid of the year 2018 have been collected and a the correlation between grid frequency, power surplus, share of renewables vs. CO2-contents and price at the European energy exchange (EEX) have been calculated. The results show: Correlation between frequency and share of renewables is quite low (r = 0.155) due to the fact that primary grid control quickly compensates deviations from the 50 Hz nominal frequency. There is a good anti-correlation (r = - 0.687) between the EEX‒prices and the share of renewables in the grid. Over the years, correlation between electricity trading prices (EEX) and CO2 emissions is quite good (r =0.665), within the one year (2018) that correlation almost doesn’t exist, possibly due to the inflexibility of the bulky lignite power plants that even operate at negative prices.


Reduction of required storage capacities for a 100% renewable energy supply in Germany, if new PV systems are installed with east-west tracking systems at increased elevation angles

S. Krauter, D. Rustemovic, A. Khatibi, in: Proceedings of the 37th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 07 - 11 September 2020, 2020, pp. 1818 - 1819

Due to the strong reduction of PV prices, storage plays a dominating role in overall system costs. A steeper elevation angle would result in a more balanced seasonal PV yield, at the cost of PV yield reductions during summer, but allowing reduced storage capacities. Additionally, the effect of a single-axis tracking system has been investigated, generating more electricity during the morning and evening hours, thus reducing daily storage requirements. The necessary PV size and storage capacities required for the German energy supply (1,500 TWh after electrification of all sectors) via 100% renewable energies and a 50% solar share have been calculated via the HOMER Pro software, considering the bridging of periods of "dark lulls“ in winter, using costs of 2030 (Table 1). Results: The increase of module elevation angles above the typical 30° leads to a reduction of investment and supply costs. The optimum is reached at a cost reduction of -1.5% for an elevation angle at the latitude of the installation site. An explanation is that high elevation angles are favorable for clear winter days, but not at all for the critical days with diffuse irradiance only, so the battery capacity must be increased. For the same reason, tracking systems do not offer any cost advantage (at least for the ones without an option for horizontal positioning during diffuse days).


Elevated Temperatures Affecting Efficiency, Overall Performance and Energy Yield of PV Microinverters

S. Krauter, J. Bendfeld, in: Proceedings of the EU PVSEC 2020 , 2020, pp. 1179 - 1180

During comparative measurements of different PV microinverters, two yield issues came up that could not be explored via conventional efficiency measurements, but do have a significant impact on electrical energy yield: First category of issues are either sluggish or nervously acting maximum–power–point–tracking devices, which lead to reduced energy yields. The other category of issues is thermal: As a first explanation for observed reduced energy yields, it has been assumed that the conversion efficiency degrades at higher operating temperatures. This matter has been investigated in this article: A change in conversion efficiency could not be observed for elevated operation temperatures up to 50°C, despite high-precision and repeated measurements. But it was found that some inverters temporarily interrupted (or entirely stopped) operation after long periods of running at high temperatures. Also, a reduction in potential maximum power output has been detected for those inverters. Summarizing: With a high degree of certainty it can be stated that those reported yield losses have been caused by the temporary shutdowns and power limitations of the inverters.


Correlation of grid-frequency, electricity prices, share of Renewables and CO2-contents of German electricity grid to enable inexpensive triggering of Demand-Side-Management

S. Krauter, L. Zhang, in: Proceedings of the 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC 47) 2020, 2020, pp. 1672-1674

Due to the present inflexibility and the lack of sufficient throttling capabilities of lignite and nuclear power plants, a surplus of electricity generation occurs during periods of high wind and solar power generation in the German electricity grid. While the specific CO2-emission is decreasing then - due to the increased share of Renewables, the grid frequency should be increasing (to a certain limit). Using the grid frequency as an indicator to switch-on and -off certain loads (loads that do not require power permanently (e.g. dishwashers, washing machines, dryers, fridges and freezers, heaters) could provide a simple, inexpensive demand-side-management indicator to lower specific CO2-emissions and costs (if a dynamic consumption tariff is applied). To check the truthfulness of that hypothesis, the grid and frequency data of the German grid of the year 2018 have been collected and the correlations between grid frequency, share of renewables, CO2-contents, and actual price at the European energy exchange (EEX) have been calculated. The results show: Correlation between grid frequency and the share of renewables is quite low (r=0.155) due to the fact that primary grid control quickly compensates deviations from the 50 Hz nominal frequency. As expected, there is a good anti-correlation (r=-0.687) between the EEX-prices and the share of renewables in the grid. Over the years, correlation between electricity trading prices (EEX) and CO2 emissions is quite good (r=0.665), within the one year (2018) that correlation almost doesn't exist, possibly due to the inflexibility of the bulky lignite baseload power plants that even operate at negative prices.


Comparison of Microinverters: Update on Rankings of Conversion Efficiencies and Energy Yields

S. Krauter, J. Bendfeld, in: Proceedings of the 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC 47) JUNE 15 - AUGUST 21, 2020 VIRTUAL MEETING, IEEE, 2020, pp. 1429-1432

To compare efficiency and yield of many micro-inverters available on the world market in 2014-2020, an in- and outdoor test laboratory at the University of Paderborn has been set up. The inverters have been fed by identical and calibrated crystalline silicon PV modules of 215 Wp. To monitor accurately DC input, AC power output and energy yield, each of the micro-inverters has been equipped with a calibrated electricity meter. For micro-inverters requiring control units for grid-feeding that has been acquired also. The comparison covers efficiency-load characteristics as well as electrical energy yields. Purchase costs vary considerably between the models in comparison, sometimes inverter costs are higher than module costs, particularly if an additional grid-connection or interface device is needed for operation. The weighted conversion efficiency according to EU and CEC standards has been measured and calculated. While some inverters have been optimized for high irradiance levels, they ranked better at the CEC efficiency, others performed very well also for low irradiance levels, thus ranking higher at in the EU-efficiency tables. These results are deviating from the actual energy yield measurements, which show a slightly different ranking. At one inverter, an accurate, but very slow MPPT algorithm that barely could follow quickly changing irradiance levels could be the reason for this effect. Another inverter switched off after operation at high power output for a while. Apparently, some inverters are been optimized to show excellent EU and CEC efficiency ratings. Two of the inverters featuring two inputs did not show an exceptional performance at the EU- and CEC-ratings, but they achieved top ranks at the AC energy yield for the first years. For the customer, the AC yield is a major performance indicator of any microinverter and should be included in the datasheet.


Eignung der Netzfrequenz als Instrument der Entscheidungsfindung zur Auslösung von Lastverschiebungen bei niedrigen spezifischen CO2-Emissionen und EEX-Handelspreisen

S. Krauter, L. Zhang, in: Tagungsband des 35. Symposiums für Photovoltaische Solarenergie, Kloster Banz, Bad Staffelstein (Deutschland), 2020


Probability of Correct Decision–Making at Triggering of Load-Shifting Intended for low CO2-intensity and low EEX trading-prices via simple Grid Frequency Monitoring

S. Krauter, L. Zhang, in: Proceedings of the 14th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference, Düsseldorf (Deutschland), 10.–12. März 2020 (verschoben: 16.–18. März 2021), 2020


2019

Numerical Investigation of the Temperature Distribution in PCM-integrated Solar Modules

M. Grabo, D. Weber, A. Paul, T. Klaus, W. Bermpohl, S. Krauter, E. Kenig, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS (2019), 76, pp. 895-900

DOI


Entwicklung eines thermischen 1D-Simulationsmodells zur Bestimmung der Temperaturverteilung in Solarmodulen

M. Grabo, D. Weber, A. Paul, T. Klaus, W. Bermpohl, S. Krauter, E. Kenig, 2019


Entwicklung eines thermischen 1D-Simulationsmodells zur Bestimmung der Temperaturverteilung in Solarmodulen

M. Grabo, D. Weber, A. Paul, T. Klaus, W. Bermpohl, S. Krauter, E. Kenig, 2019


Numerical Investigation of the Temperature Distribution in PCM-integrated Solar Modules

M. Grabo, D. Weber, A. Paul, T. Klaus, W. Bermpohl, S. Krauter, E. Kenig, Chemical Engineering Transactions (2019), pp. 895-900

DOI


2018

An Automated Solar-Biomass Hybrid Dryer System for Rural Communities in Ghana

G. Obeng-Akrofi, J. Oppong Akowuah, G. Opoku-Agyemang, I. Nkrumah, M..K.E. Donkor, R.Y. Tamakloe, F.K. Ampong, T. Klaus, S. Krauter, M. Waldhoff, A. Olenberg, E. Kenig, in: Proceedings of SWC2017/SHC2017, International Solar Energy Society, 2018

DOI


Photovoltaic yield prediction using an irradiance forecast model based on multiple neural networks

S.P. DURRANI, S. BALLUFF, L. WURZER, S. Krauter, Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy (2018), 6(2), pp. 255-267

DOI


Simple and effective methods to match photovoltaic power generation to the grid load profile for a PV based energy system.

S. Krauter, Solar Energy (2018), 159, pp. 768–776


Smart charging management system of plugged-in EVs based on user driving patterns in micro-grids

A. Ameli, S. Krauter, M.T. Ameli, S. Moslehpour, International Journal of Engineering Research & Innovation (2018), 10(1)


Lifetime Extension of Photovoltaic Modules by Influencing the Module Temperature Using Phase Change Material

D. Weber, M.I. Rafsan Jani, M. Grabo, O. Wallscheid, T. Klaus, S. Krauter, J. Böcker, in: World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC-7), 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC, 34th EU PVSEC., 2018

DOI


2017

Start-up factory Ghana: Creating an enabling environment for the dissemination of renewable energies

T. Klaus, I. Nkrumah, M. Donkor, R. Tamakloe, F. Ampong, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the ISES Solar World Congress 2017, 2017


Minimizing storage costs by substituting centralized electrical storage by thermal storage at the end user, also suppling balancing power for grid operation

S. Krauter, D. Prior, Energy Procedia (2017), 135, pp. 210 - 226

Many processes in industrial and domestic applications require heating or cooling at certain steps of a process. Even if the process itself cannot be shifted towards periods of high PV output (which would be favorable), the heating and cooling necessities can be carried out via an inexpensive thermal storage instead of a costly electrical storage. Examples are: distillation units, washing machines, dishwashers, coolers, freezers. The resulting “shiftability” of power consumption can be a business model by offering that availability of load dispatching on the balancing power market. An example using PCM as cooling storage for refrigerators that has been investigated: A focus of this paper is the use of that load shifting ability to provide balancing power. Another emphasis is on the protection of individual consumer data: To keep the state of use of each individual consumer (actually: interactive consumer or “prosumer”) anonymous, but still performing the sales of balancing power, the orders for load-dispatching can be transmitted via transmitted via a regional, non-individual broadcasting message within the GSM network. Demonstrating DSMs capacities, abilities and limits concerning domestic applications is an important task to prepare large-scale implementation and to convince stakeholders. To reaching that goal, several realistic DSM scenarios for cooling applications and freezers have been developed with the prerequisite that DSM activities are supposed to be without comfort losses and without restrictions for consumers while the limits for lower and upper temperature for food are maintained.


Performance of MERRA2 Data Compared to Floating LiDAR

J. Bendfeld, S. Balluff, S. Wübbeke, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the DEWEK 2017, 2017


Short-term wind speed and power prediction for offshore wind farms using neural networks

J. Bendfeld, S. Balluff, J. Krüger, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the DEWEK 2017, 2017


Update on rankings of conversion efficiencies and energy yield of micro-inverters, including inverters for two PV modules

J. Bendfeld, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Amsterdam, (Niederlande), 25.-29. Sept. 2017, S. 1477–1481, 2017


Long-term performance of PV micro-inverters

J. Bendfeld, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Amsterdam, (Niederlande), 25.-29. Sept. 2017, S. 1836–1840, 2017


Advanced PV Module Hot Spot Characterisation

S. Krauter, S. Wendlandt, L.. Süthoff, S. Berendes, J.. Teubner, L. Podlowski, J. Berghold, P. Grunow, in: Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Amsterdam, (Niederlande), 25.-29. Sept. 2017, 2017


Comparison of Conversion Efficiencies and Energy Yields of Micro-Inverters for Photovoltaic Modules

S. Krauter, in: VDE-Proceedings of NEIS 2017 – Conference on Sustainable Energy Supply and Energy Storage Systems by IEEE-PES. Hamburg (Deutschland), 21.–22. September, 2017., 2017


Smart Charging Management System of Plugged-in EVs for Optimal Operation of Future Power Systems.

S. Krauter, A. Ameli, in: VDE-Proceedings of NEIS 2017 – Conference on Sustainable Energy Supply and Energy Storage Systems by IEEE-PES. Hamburg (Deutschland), 21.–22. September, 2017., 2017


Minimizing storage costs: Simple and effective methods to match PV with grid load, including shift of holiday period

S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference for Renewable Energy Storage, 14-16 March 2017, Düsseldorf, Germany., 2017


Introduction of an Advanced Method for Testing of Battery Charge Controllers for Off-Grid PV Systems

A. Khatibi, J. Bendfeld, W. Bermpohl, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Amsterdam, (Niederlande), 25.-29. Sept. 2017, 2017


Testing and Analysis of Battery Charge Controllers for Off-Grid PV Systems

A. Khatibi, J. Bendfeld, W. Bermpohl, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Amsterdam, (Niederlande), 25.-29. Sept. 2017, 2017


2016

Einbindung von Offshore Windenergie durch innovative Prognosemodelle und Speichertechnologien

J. Bendfeld, S. Balluff, S. Krauter. Einbindung von Offshore Windenergie durch innovative Prognosemodelle und Speichertechnologien. In: 14. Symposium Energieinnovation 2016, Graz, 2016.


Green Energy from the Ocean An overview on costeffectiv and reliable measuring systems

J. Bendfeld, S. Balluff, S. Krauter, in: 2015 International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA), IEEE, 2016

DOI


Bestimmung der relevanten klimatologischen Parameter Offshore

J. Bendfeld, S. Balluff, S. Krauter, in: Wissenschaftliche Verhandlungen 2016 der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft Regensburg, 2016


Systemvergleich zur zeitlich und örtlich hochaufgelösten Einstrahlungsmessung

J. Bendfeld, S. Balluff, S. Krauter, in: Wissenschaftliche Verhandlungen 2016 der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft Regensburg, 2016


Shadowing Investigations on Thin Film Modules

S. Krauter, S. Wendtland, T. Weber, J. Berghold, P. Grunow, in: Proceedings of the 31st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, München (Deutschland), 20.–24. Juni 2016, S. 2265–2270., 2016


Start-Up Factory Kumasi (Ghana) – Paderborn (Germany): Smart Tropical House KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana

T. Klaus, E. Schmitz, B. Klusmann, M. Piper, S. Krauter, L.. Rongen, R. Gruber, I. Nkrumah, K. Ampong, M. Donkor, R. Tamakloe, in: Proceedings of the 31st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, München (Deutschland), 20.–24. Juni 2016, S. 3048–3049, 2016


Deviations of results for energy yield from efficiency rankings of micro-inverters

S. Krauter, J. Bendfeld, in: Proceedings of the 31st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, München (Deutschland), 20.–24. Juni 2016, S. 1508–1511, 2016


Photovoltaics and the Energy System: Adaptation of layout and load.

L. Kazmerski, D. Renne, H. Kazem, D. Sopian, N. Al-Bastaki, S. Haji, D. Mohd, Y. Othman, W. Hoffmann, S. Krauter, D. Swift-Hook, T. Book, in: Renewable Energy in the Service of Mankind Vol II, Springer: International Publishing Switzerland, First Edition. Springer, 2016


Experimental study of phase change materials for photovoltaic modules: Energy performance and economic yield for the EPEX spot market

E. Japs, G. Sonnenrein, S. Krauter, J. Vrabec, Solar Energy (2016), 140, pp. 51-59


Short term wind and energy prediction for offshore wind farms using neural networks

S. Balluff, J. Bendfeld, S. Krauter, in: 2015 International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA), IEEE, 2016

DOI


2015

Measurement and Analysis of offshore fog occurrences

J. Bendfeld, S. Balluff, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 95th AMS Annual Meeting, 2015


Performance of MERRA Data in Offshore Wind Energy Applications

J. Bendfeld, S. Balluff, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the DEWEK 2015, 2015


Advanced Integration of Offshore Wind Energy into the Grid System by Power to Gas

J. Bendfeld, Y. Bouyraaman, S. Balluff, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the DEWEK 2015, 2015


Comparison of micro inverters based on practical analysis

A. Sadati, S. Krauter, J. Bendfeld, in: 2015 5th International Youth Conference on Energy (IYCE), IEEE, 2015

DOI


Effective large-scale PV integration: Methods to match load profile with actual PV output

S. Krauter, in: 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), IEEE, 2015

DOI


Cost, performance, and yield comparison of eight different micro-inverters

S. Krauter, J. Bendfeld, in: 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), IEEE, 2015

DOI


BOS cost reduction via direct PV charging of electrical vehicles

S. Krauter, in: 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), IEEE, 2015

DOI


Stabilizing offshore wind farm power feed-in via power to gas storage systems

J. Bendfeld, Y. Bouyraaman, S. Balluff, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - Energy Science Technology 2015, 2015


Discovering the potential for offshore windfarms trough measurements

J. Bendfeld, S. Balluff, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - Energy Science Technology 2015, 2015


Wind power forecasting for offshore wind farms

J. Bendfeld, S. Balluff, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Enviroment Systems - SDEWES, 2015


Offshore wind energy development based on Merra data

J. Bendfeld, S. Balluff, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Enviroment Systems - SDEWES, 2015


Offshore metocean station for energy purposes

J. Bendfeld, S. Balluff, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Enviroment Systems - SDEWES, 2015


Short term wind and energy prediction for offshore wind farms using neural networks

J. Bendfeld, S. Balluff, S. Krauter, in: EWEA Forecasting 2015 Technology Workshop, 2015


Integration of Wind Energy in Power System—Modelling of a Market Oriented Energy Concept

Y. Bouyraaman, J. Bendfeld, P. Breymann, S. Krauter, in: Renewable Energy in the Service of Mankind Vol I, Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 845-854

DOI


2014

Integration of offshore wind energy into the grid system in Germany: Modelling of a market oriented energy provision

Y. Bouyraaman, J. Bendfeld, S. Krauter, in: 14th IAEE European Energy Conference- Sustainable Energy Policy and Strategies in Europe, Rome, Italy, October 28-31, 2014, 2014


Integration of wind energy in power systems: Modeling of a market-orientated energy concept

Y. Bouyraaman, J. Bendfeld, S. Krauter, P. Breymann, in: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress WREC XIII, London, (UK), August 3-8, 2014 , 2014


Solar Electric Power Systems. Second Edition

S. Krauter, Springer Verlag, 2014


Measures to match load profile with actual PV generation to achieve an effective integration into the energy system

S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 6th World Conference of Photovoltaic Energy Conversion WCPEC 6, Kyoto (Japan), November 23-27, 2014 , 2014


Identification and elimination of potential induced degradation (PID) at photovoltaic power plants

S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 6th World Conference of Photovoltaic Energy Conversion WCPEC 6, Kyoto (Japan), November 23-27, 2014, 2014


Performance and Yield Comparison of seven different Micro-Inverters.

S. Krauter, J. Bendfeld, A. Gohardehi, A. Sadati, in: Proceedings of the 6th World Conference of Photovoltaic Energy Conversion WCPEC 6, Kyoto (Japan), November 23-27, 2014, 2014


Micro combined heat and power plants (micro-CHP) in combination with photovoltaics for autonomous local power and heat supply.

S. Krauter, Y. Bouyraaman, J. Bendfeld, E. Japs, in: Proceedings of the 6th World Conference of Photovoltaic Energy Conversion WCPEC 6, Kyoto (Japan), November 23-27, 2014, 2014


Photovoltaics and the Energy System: Adaptation of layout and load

S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress WREC XIII, London, (UK), August 3-8, 2014 , 2014


An Optimized Load Frequency Control of a De-centralized Energy System Using Plug-in Electric Vehicles

A. Ameli, H. Ameli, S. Krauter, R. Hanitsch, in: Proceedings of the MES-BREG 2014 Symposium “Innovating Energy Access for Remote Areas: Discovering untapped resources”, UC Berkeley (USA), April 10-12, 2014 , 2014


Energy-economic comparison of photovoltaic modules equipped with a layer of conventional and improved phase-change material

E. Japs, S. Peters, G. Sonnenrein, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Denver (USA), June 8-13, 2014 , 2014


Integration of PV into the Energy System: Challenges and Measures for Generation and Load Management

S. Krauter, E. Japs, in: Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Denver (USA), June 8-13, 2014, 2014


Plant layout modifications and load adaptation to integrate Photovoltaics in the energy system.

S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam (The Netherlands), September 22-16, 2014 , 2014


Comparison of Hot Spot Investigations under Laboratory and Field Conditions at Photovoltaic Modules

S. Wendlandt, M. Krause, S. Berendes, M. Hanusch, A. Drobisch, J. Berghold, M. Schoppa, P. Grunow, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam (The Netherlands), September 22-16, 2014, 2014


Integration Erneuerbarer Energien: Herausforderungen und Maßnahmen im Erzeugungssektor und Lastmanagement

S. Krauter, uwf Umwelt Wirtschafts Forum (2014), 22(1), pp. S. 37-44


2013

Test Sequence Development for Evaluation of Potential Induced Degradation on Thin-Film Modules

T. Weber, J. Berghold, F. Heilmann, M. Roericht, S. Krauter, P. Grunow, in: Proceedings of the 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris (Frankreich, 2013


About the hot spot stability of ages silicon crystalline PV modules and materials

S. Wendlandt, R. Berthold, M. Hanusch, A. Drobisch, J. Berghold, M. Schoppa, S. Krauter, P. Grunow, in: Proceedings of the 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris (Frankreich), 2013


Energiewende mit Sonnenstrom

S. Krauter, Forschungsforum Paderborn, 16-2013, Februar 2013 (2013), pp. 38-45


Technical investigation of a photovoltaic module with integrated improved phase change material

E. Japs, G. Sonnenrein, J. Steube, J. Vrabec, E. Kenig, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris (Frankreich), 2013




2012

Measurement of spectral-spatial distribution of global irradiance

M. Leers, A. Preiss, N. Ferretti, S. Krauter, in: 2011 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, IEEE, 2012

DOI


The temperature as the real hot spot risk factor at PV-modules

S. Wendlandt, A. Giese, A. Drobisch, D. Tomow, M. Hanusch, J. Berghold, S. Krauter, P. Grunow, in: Proceedings of the 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Frankfurt a. M. (Germany), 24.-28. September 2012, pp. 3553-3557 , 2012


Suitable test procedure for electrical energy storage in PV operation mode – implementation and implication

S. Krauter, o. Lang, in: 7th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference (IRES 2012), Berlin (Germany), 12.-14. November 2012, 2012


PV 3.0

S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Frankfurt a. M. (Germany), 24.-28. September 2012, pp. 4520-4522, 2012


Technical Assurance for High Reliable PV Modules via PI Testing

S. Krauter, S. Chen, in: Proceedings of 6th International Photovoltaic Power Generation Conference SNEC 2012, Shanghai (China), 16.-18. June 2012, 2012


Solar PV in Latin America.

S. Krauter, PV Magazine April 2012 (2012)(April), pp. 8


Encapsulation influence on the potentialinduced degradation of crystalline silicon cells with selective emitter structures.

S. Koch, J. Berghold, O. Okoroafor, S. Krauter, P. Grunow, in: Proceedings of the 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Frankfurt a. M. (Germany), 24.-28. September 2012, pp. 1991-1995 , 2012


Potential induced degradation effects on crystalline silicon cells with various antireflection coatings

S. Koch, D. Nieschalk, J. Berghold, S. Wendlandt, S. Krauter, P. Grunow, in: Proceedings of the 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Frankfurt a. M. (Germany), 24.-28. September 2012, pp. 1985-1990, 2012


Storage System Strategies to optimize the Offshore-Wind Farm feed-in Fluctuations

Y. Bouyraaman, J. Bendfeld, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the IRES 2012 (7th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference and Exhibition), Berlin, Germany, 12.-14. November 2012, 2012


Lösungsaspekte zur Weiterentwicklung des deutschen Regelenergiemarktes hinsichtlich der Integration erneuerbarer Energien.

Y. Bouyraaman, C. Thiele, S. Krauter, in: Zukunftsperspektiven für den Regelenergiemarkt Strom 2012 – IQPC, Berlin, Germany, August 2012, 2012


Increased Availability of Offshore Wind Power by Storage System

Y. Bouyraaman, J. Bendfeld, S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of the WWEC 2012 (11th World Wind Energy Conference 2012), Bonn, Germany, Juli 2012, 2012


2011

The Challenge of Renewable Energies & Decentralized Power Systems – State of the Art, Potentials & Perspectives

S. Krauter, in: Proceedings of Decentralized Power Systems (DPS) 2011, Paderborn (Deutschland), 2. September 2011., 2011


Meteorological measurements in the Baltic and the North Sea

J. Bendfeld, S. Krauter, in: Wissenschaftliche Verhandlungen 2011 der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, Dresden, März 2011 , 2011


Hybrid measuring devices for evaluation of waves and currents

J. Bendfeld, S. Krauter, in: Wissenschaftliche Verhandlungen 2011 der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, Dresden, März 2011, 2011


Zehn Quadratmeter für die Langstrecke

E. Kühnle, S. Krauter, Forschung & Entwicklung, Photovoltaik (2011), 12, pp. 60-63


Die maximale Anzahl anzuzeigender Publikationen wurde erreicht - alle Publikationen finden Sie im Research Infomation System.

Liste im Research Information System öffnen

Die Universität der Informationsgesellschaft